Although several southern states had repealed laws against interracial marriage during the Reconstruction Era, they were soon reenacted throughout the region as part of the reestablishment of white dominance. 79Jonathan P. Spiro, Defending the Master Race: Conservation, Eugenics, and the Legacy of Madison Grant (Burlington, Vt., 2009); Paul A. Lombardo, A Century of Eugenics in America: From the Indiana Experiment to the Human Genome Era (Bloomington, Ind., 2011). Those immigrants who gazed rapturously at the magnificent statue upon their arrival in New York Harbor may have seen a symbol of freedom and prosperity, but they also saw a vision of whiteness, and ultimately a vision of what they could become in America. The project never came to fruition, but in many ways it represented a first exploration of the themes that would culminate with the Statue of Liberty. 30Carolyn J. Eichner, Surmounting the Barricades: Women in the Paris Commune (Bloomington, Ind., 2004); Gay L. Gullickson, Unruly Women of Paris: Images of the Commune (Ithaca, N.Y., 1996); Edith Thomas, The Women Incendiaries: The Inspiring Story of the Women of the Paris Commune Who Took Up Arms in the Fight for Liberty and Equality, trans. 25See Maurice Agulhon, Marianne into Battle: Republican Imagery and Symbolism in France, 1789â1880, trans. It was made ro commerate rhe 159th anniversary of the Emancipation Proclimation proclaimation Search for other works by this author on: Compliance with permission from the rights holder to display this image online prohibits further enlargement or copying. The governor of Missouri not only condemned the crime but also argued that the statue should be removed from the Springfield public square until justice was done.70 At the same time, the incident corresponded to a certain symbolic meaning of the Statue of Liberty, notably the role played by ideals of white womanhood in violence against black men. During World War I, the Statue of Liberty became more popular than ever, competing with Uncle Sam as the symbol of American national identity. James and Starr Atkinson (Chicago, 2007). Moreover, freedom has been closely entangled with ideas of whiteness and white racial identity in modern history, so that to be free has often meant to be white, and vice versa. Rainbow Quartz. Endlessly reproduced as a tourist object, a commercial symbol and a political icon, the Statue of Liberty is one of the great monuments of the modern world. SleepJeans. */, African- American News & Issues, Inc. In both Europe and America, the proper lady was a white woman who not only kept her distance from subaltern classes and races, but whose presence could also foster the hegemony of white bourgeois civilization. MARIGOT/GREAT BAY The Lady Liberty statue at the Agrément roundabout is probably the best-known public sculpture by Theodore Bonev in St. Martin. When Americans celebrated the inauguration of the Statue of Liberty in 1886, they celebrated a racialized vision of liberty; the original statue may not have been black, but the one they embraced was certainly white. Funded by a popular subscription launched by American newspaper magnate Joseph Pulitzer, the massive pedestal and base rise 154 feet from the soil of Liberty Island, slightly taller than the statue itself. âGive me your tired, your poor. There is nothing comparable to the Statue of Liberty as a symbol of freedom in the modern world. It soon, however, also became linked to a defense of white womanhood against the threat of black rapists. Joseph, âThe Black Statue of Liberty Rumor.â. From the 1880s until the First World War, the United States witnessed a wave of immigration unprecedented in both its size and its origins. Examples include Marianne, the national personification of the French Republic and its values of Liberté, Égalité, Fraternité, the female Liberty portrayed on United States coins for well over a century, and many others.. 16Philip Nord, The Republican Moment: Struggles for Democracy in Nineteenth-Century France (Cambridge, Mass., 1998). 6On the early history of republicanism, see Benjamin Straumann, Crisis and Constitutionalism: Roman Political Thought from the Fall of the Republic to the Age of Revolution (Oxford, 2016); Joy Connolly, The Life of Roman Republicanism (Princeton, N.J., 2017); Mark Jurdjevic, Guardians of Republicanism: The Valori Family in the Florentine Renaissance (Oxford, 2008); James Hankins, ed., Renaissance Civic Humanism: Reappraisals and Reflections (Cambridge, 2004). 10 and 11; Berenson, The Statue of Liberty, 69â89. St Martin is the French side, and St Maarten the Dutch side of the island. 32âShe is not liberty with a red cap on her head and a pike in her hand, stepping over corpses.â Laboulaye, cited in Don H. Doyle, The Cause of All Nations: An International History of the American Civil War (New York, 2014), 311. âThe stunning beauty and elegance of Lady Libertyâ was unveiled in 2007 to mark the 159th anniversary of the 1848 Emancipation from slavery. Juneteenth, also known as Freedom Day, is an American holiday celebrated on June 19, commemorating the day the Emancipation Proclamation was read to slaves in Galveston, Texas. 82Thomas Bailey Aldrich, âUnguarded Gates,â Atlantic Monthly 70 (July 1892): 57. The overthrow of the republic by a military dictator, Napoleon III, further underscored the violence and instability of the movement.9, Throughout the nineteenth century, republicans in France struggled with the movementâs revolutionary heritage. Lady of Liberty, Theodore Bonev, Island of Saint Martin, 2007 The above image was part of an Internet hoax that went around a few years ago. The overthrow of the Second Empire brought the end of a regime that had antagonized the United States and made France once again a republic. Included in the latter group were some of the 2 million Jews who came to the United States between the 1880s and the 1920s.76. Perhaps most famously, historian Marvin Trachtenberg observed that not only did it represent a powerful, monumental image of woman, a âgreat lady,â but at the same time, âfor a fee she is open to all for entry and exploration.â60 This incongruity corresponded more generally to new bourgeois ideas of femininity that rendered the ideal woman sexless and subservient while at the same time struggled to repress sexual desire. In street and alley what strange tongues are these. Moreover, the symbolic role played by the monument in allowing European immigrants to the U.S. to claim white status underscores its racial character, as does its complicated but largely exclusionary or at best irrelevant relationship to African Americans and other peoples of color. It went something like this: The spiritual death of the GOP | Afram News, Share on FacebookShare on TwitterShare on Linked InShare by Email, We think it's fair to say that the election of Trump by Christian Right Evangelicals and the GOP must be ranked among America’s greatest sins, such as slavery. It seems like yesterday the nation watched in horror as George Floyd pleaded for his life on a Minneapolis street while being choked to death by police officers. âThe people were screaming and some of them were crying and some of them were dancing. It was also said that the original statue had been created to honor black Civil War soldiers. While this new idea of femininity certainly did not reflect the lives of working-class women, the bourgeois standard of female behavior and status increasingly characterized what it meant to be a woman in the modern age.57. Many republican leaders argued that the new regime could survive only if it renounced its radical heritage; as the new provisional president, Adolphe Thiers, proclaimed, the republic must be conservative, or it would not be.14 The showdown between these two republican visions came in March 1871, when radicals seized control of the Paris city government and staged the armed uprising known as the Paris Commune. In a sense, the Statue of Liberty is herself the most famous immigrant in American history. The statue carried broken chains to symbolize emancipation. âLady Libertyâ by Theodore Bonev (2007) at the Agrement roundabout, St. Maartin " As an allegory of Liberty, Woman symbolizes a passion for freedom inherent to all human beings, while at the same time exposing the limits of liberty as an abstract ideal. Bitterly disappointed by this new turn to despotism in France, Laboulaye focused on the United States as a successful example of republican government and popular sovereignty. We have already seen how the design of the Statue of Liberty represented a more conservative vision of Marianne, illustrating the shift in republicanism in both the United States and France. Freedom and racial segregation, and the violence needed to preserve racial segregation, coexisted in the idealized white female body.68. As the cartoonâs title suggests, the use of the Statue of Liberty in a lynching prompted widespread outrage among both black and white Americans. In addition, the point of the statue was not to honor immigrants but rather to commemorate the abolition of slavery in America, in particular the service of black Union soldiers in the Civil War. 4: 1883â1900, ed. The republic must reject slavery, but the best way to do so was to get rid of the slaves themselves.42 Lincoln and many other Republicans had come to support the abolition of slavery only reluctantly, and the Emancipation Proclamation provoked furious hostility throughout the North during the war.43 By 1865 the Republicans were clearly divided, not only as to how to rebuild a bitterly divided nation, but more generally about the shape of the American republic in the future. 3 (2000): 231â261. halloween 1. But I was actually built in a place called Paris, France. It would take decades, however, for this new vision of the statue to become dominant; Lazarusâs poem was largely ignored by the American public until the late 1930s.87 By then, major changes in national life had facilitated this transformation. LOT 5357, Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division. Their vision of the Statue of Liberty consequently emphasized freedomâs moderate virtue. The Lady of Liberty thus stands high above New York Harbor, lifting her torch to a height of over 300 feet, and to this day dominating the maritime approach to Americaâs largest city.56, This image of a woman on a pedestal corresponds to the increasingly conservative images of gender and womanhood during the nineteenth century, in America and throughout the world. 47C. Think about it. Originally a gift from France to the United States, it also represents the historical ties between the two great republics and the significance of liberty as a global phenomenon. One Texas journalist, for example, warned New Yorkers about the danger posed to the statue by black men, saying that âsome morning [they would] find the old girl with her head mashed in and bearing marks of sexual violence.â69 The ambivalent gender symbolism of the statue, representing both female power and female vulnerability, assumed a more sinister meaning in the context of the racialized politics of late-nineteenth-century America. The life and politics of Ãdouard de Laboulaye, the man who more than any other conceived of the idea for the monument, illustrate the ways in which the political turbulence of mid-nineteenth-century France shaped the statue that would come to dominate New York Harbor. The depiction of three black men being lynched by Lady Liberty dramatically underscored the racialized dimension of Americaâs greatest monument.71. Wells, 1892â1900, ed. 1840â1880, revised ed. The sight of the great monument to the left was for many their first sight of America, and one of the most dramatic and enduring. 45On the history of Reconstruction, see Eric Foner, A Short History of Reconstruction (New York, 2015); A. J. Langguth, After Lincoln: How the North Won the Civil War and Lost the Peace (New York, 2015); Douglas R. Egerton, The Wars of Reconstruction: The Brief, Violent History of Americaâs Most Progressive Era (London, 2015); David Roediger, Seizing Freedom: Slave Emancipation and Liberty for All (London, 2015); Allen W. Trelease, White Terror: The Ku Klux Klan Conspiracy and Southern Reconstruction (1971; repr., Baton Rouge, La., 1995). My name is Lady Liberty and I come from a place called New York City. Some have even argued that the original black statue still exists, either in France or hidden somewhere in the catacombs of New York. Janet Lloyd (Cambridge, 1981). 58As Gloria Steinem famously quipped, âA pedestal is as much a prison as any small, confined space.â Kathy Duncan, âGloria Steinem Tells Health Experts: Reproductive Freedom Called Most Basic Liberty,â York Daily Record, April 12, 1977. 76On the history of European immigration to the United States in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, see Roger Daniels, Coming to America: A History of Immigration and Ethnicity in American Life, 2nd ed. The crowd dragged the three men to one of the cityâs tallest structures, the Gottfried Tower, which was topped by a replica of the Statue of Liberty, and hanged them from it. 51Dee Brown, Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee: An Indian History of the American West (New York, 1972); Roxanne Dunbar-Ortiz, An Indigenous Peoplesâ History of the United States (Boston, 2015). r/blackladies: The face of Black women on Reddit! To leave the gates unguarded? As a result, Laboulaye ardently hoped for an alliance of the two great sister republics, one that would bring liberty and enlightenment to all the peoples of the world.21, By the early 1870s, Laboulaye had developed the idea of a giant statue symbolizing liberty that France would give to the United States in honor of the centennial of the American Revolution.22 At the end of the 1860s he met FrÃ©dÃ©ric-Auguste Bartholdi, an ambitious young French sculptor devoted to monumental public art who would make his vision a reality. The concept of liberty has frequently been represented by personifications, often loosely shown as a female classical goddess. The plaque with the famous Emma Lazarus poem — “Give me your tired, your poor, your huddled masses yearning to breathe free” — wasn’t added until 1903. Moreover, freedom has been closely entangled with ideas of whiteness and white racial identity in modern history, so that to be free has often meant to be white, and vice versa. Rendered famous by Gone with the Wind, the cult of southern womanhood has a complex history, involving both the embrace of patriarchal society and an emphasis on white womenâs empowerment in a variety of spheres ranging from the church to the plantation. On June 19, 1865, the Emancipation Proclamation— which had been issued on January 1, 1863— was read to enslaved African Americans by Gordon Granger, informing them of the official end of slavery in the United States. The stunning beauty and elegance of Lady Liberty was unveiled in 2007 to mark the 159th anniversary of the 1848 Emancipation from slavery. The statue is fully clothed, both majestic and modest, unlike the radical harridans of Paris. In 1892 federal authorities turned Ellis Island, just upriver from the statueâs home on Bedloeâs Island, into the nationâs largest immigrant-processing center. Most important, the image of a female colossus symbolizing liberty and progress inspired Bartholdiâs creation of the American statue.23, Why would one give the ideal of liberty a female form? MARIGOT / GRAND BAY-La statue âLady Libertyâ au rond-point Agrément est probablement la sculpture la plus connue du public par Theodore Bonev à Saint-Martin. With their departure, little prevented white Democrats and the racist terrorists who supported them from ending Reconstruction and the promise of an egalitarian republic. Malayan, Scythian, Teuton, Kelt, and Slav. 46Charlottesville Weekly Chronicle, April 7, 1871, cited in Katz, From Appomattox to Montmartre, 112. 40For a general history of the Civil War, see Allen C. Guelzo, Fateful Lightning: A New History of the Civil War and Reconstruction (Oxford, 2012). 17On the life of Laboulaye, see Walter D. Gray, Interpreting American Democracy in France: The Career of Ãdouard Laboulaye, 1811â1883 (Newark, Del., 1994). 24Marina Warner, Monuments and Maidens: The Allegory of the Female Form (New York, 1985); Barbara A. Babcock and John J. Macaloon, âEverybodyâs Gal: Women, Boundaries, and Monuments,â in Dillon and Kotler, The Statue of Liberty Revisited, 79â100. The ideal of the southern plantation mistress, in particular, underscored how white women created and symbolized civilization in a society dependent upon the labor of enslaved black women and men.65, The image of the lady on the pedestal was crucial for white southern women, whose gentility depended on their isolation from the realities of slave society. (New Haven, Conn., 1997). 43Eric Foner, The Fiery Trial: Abraham Lincoln and American Slavery (New York, 2010). In 1873, white vigilantes massacred some 150 blacks in Colfax, Louisiana. As an article for the National Park Service has put it, Between 1886 and 1924, almost 14 million immigrants entered the United States through New York. 94That museum opened on Liberty Island in 1972, then closed in 1991 following the opening of the Ellis Island National Museum of Immigration in 1990. The statue was supposed to be the original model for the statue of liberty. He won southern Democratic support by agreeing to withdraw federal troops from the region, a promise he kept in 1877. These culminated on April 14, 1906, when an enraged mob of thousands of whites lynched three black men, Horace Duncan, Fred Coker, and Will Allen, in Springfield, Missouri, for having sexually assaulted a white woman, Mina Edwards. An ardent republican whose hero was the Marquis de Lafayette, Laboulaye was in his early forties when Napoleon smashed the French Republic, replacing it with the Second Empire.17. With the United Statesâ entry into the war, the idea of welcoming the tempest-tost huddled masses once again became important to American identity. 7William R. Everdell, The End of Kings: A History of Republics and Republicanism (Chicago, 2000); John W. Maynor, Republicanism in the Modern World (Cambridge, 2003). 10AndrÃ© Jardin and AndrÃ©-Jean Tudesq, Restoration and Reaction, 1815â1848, trans. 63Margaret Strobel, European Women and the Second British Empire (Bloomington, Ind., 1991); Margaret MacMillan, Women of the Raj: The Mothers, Wives, and Daughters of the British Empire in India (New York, 2007); Julia Clancy-Smith and Frances Gouda, eds., Domesticating the Empire: Race, Gender, and Family Life in French and Dutch Colonialism (Charlottesville, Va., 1998); Ann Laura Stoler, Carnal Knowledge and Imperial Power: Race and the Intimate in Colonial Rule (Berkeley, Calif., 2010). Joseph Pulitzer, who arrived penniless in New York during the Civil War and became a prominent newspaper publisher, took the lead in launching the campaign to raise funds for the statueâs pedestal, calling it âthe peopleâs statue.â83 Many other immigrants contributed to the campaign; as one wrote, âI would send you more if I could, as I know how to appreciate liberty, because I am a Jew and emigrated from Russia to this city a few years ago.â84 In 1902 William Flattau, a businessman of Russian origin, built a fifty-five-foot-high scale model of the Statue of Liberty on the roof of his warehouse in Manhattan.85 The descendants of the immigrants would in their own turn champion the statue; Lee Iacocca, the chairman of the Ford Motor Company and the son of Italian immigrants, led the planning of the one-hundredth-anniversary celebration of the Statue of Liberty in 1986. In many different contexts, from the French struggle for republicanism to American debates about immigration, it has stood for human liberty and prosperity. The statue stands tall and strong with the broken shackles of slavery in one hand, and a lantern in the other. It is actually the “Lady Liberty” of Freedom Point on the Caribbean island of St. Martin, a public sculpture by Theodore Bonev that was installed in 2007. Internet rumors have prompted new research into the origins of the Statue of Liberty, Americanâs 151-foot-tall monument to freedom erected in New York Harbor in 1886. 1Rebecca M. Joseph, âThe Black Statue of Liberty Rumor: An Inquiry into the History and Meaning of Bartholdiâs LibertÃ© Ã©clairant le Monde,â National Park Service, 2000, https://www.nps.gov/stli/learn/historyculture/black-statue-of-liberty.htm; David Glassberg, âRethinking the Statue of Liberty: Old Meanings, New Contexts,â National Park Service, 2003, https://archives.iupui.edu/bitstream/handle/2450/678/RethinkingTheStatue-Glassberg.pdf; âMaking the Case for the African-American Origins of the Statue of Liberty,â Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, no. During the early 1980s, the monument underwent a massive facelift and cleaning in preparation for its one-hundredth anniversary in 1986, which included equipping it with electric lights. In 1924, nativism triumphed with Congressâs passage of the Johnson-Reed Act, which sharply limited immigration to America.81. The 1790 Naturalization Act limited citizenship to whites, a legal tradition reinforced by the Dred Scott decision of 1857, which held that even free blacks could not be U.S. citizens. The idea of France as a land of freedom has been central to modern French identity, summarized by the famous slogan of the French Revolution, âlibertÃ©, Ã©galitÃ©, fraternitÃ©,â in which liberty takes pride of place.4 In particular, the ideal of freedom has taken the political form of republicanism, emphasizing popular sovereignty and the rejection of aristocratic rule. To these anxious newcomers, the Statueâs uplifted torch did not suggest âenlightenment,â as her creators intended, but rather, âwelcome.â Over time, Liberty emerged as the âMother of Exiles,â a symbol of hope to generations of immigrants.72. 83Cited in Khan, Enlightening the World, 172. C. Brann, Brann, the Iconoclast, 2 vols. 27 (Spring 2000): 65â66. See also Higham, Strangers in the Land. Tyler Stovall, White Freedom and the Lady of Liberty, The American Historical Review, Volume 123, Issue 1, February 2018, Pages 1â27, https://doi.org/10.1093/ahr/123.1.1. 13Michel Borgetto and Robert Lafore, La rÃ©publique sociale: Contribution Ã lâÃ©tude de la question dÃ©mocratique en France (Paris, 2000); Tyler Stovall, âThe Myth of the Liberatory Republic and the Political Culture of Freedom in Imperial France,â Yale French Studies, no. During the 1860s, in particular, Laboulaye used his admiration of the United States to criticize Franceâs imperial regime. Arthur Poinier, âAmericans All!â Detroit Free Press, June 19, 1941, 6. Mar 19, 2014 - The âLady Libertyâ statue at the Agrément roundabout is probably the best-known public sculpture by Theodore Bonev in St. Martin. 65Elizabeth Fox-Genovese, Within the Plantation Household: Black and White Women of the Old South (Chapel Hill, N.C., 1988); Catherine Clinton, The Plantation Mistress: Womanâs World in the Old South (New York, 1984); Drew Gilpin Faust, Mothers of Invention: Women of the Slaveholding South in the American Civil War (1996; repr., Chapel Hill, N.C., 2004). Rather, as the 1941 cartoon makes clear, it honored the descendants of immigrants who had become Americans, not the immigrants themselves. 85Berenson, The Statue of Liberty, 115â116. So how did the âwhite goddessâ end up embracing immigrants from Europe in the twentieth century? 42One result of this attitude was the practice of freeing slaves by settling them in Africa. Nonetheless, it took several decades before European immigrants were fully accepted as Americans, worthy of the benevolent gaze of the Statue of Liberty. Before the late nineteenth century, most American immigrants were natives of the British Isles (including Ireland), Germany, and Scandinavia. To an even greater extent than in the case of France, the political life of the United States centered around republicanism: the birth of the American nation constituted a definitive break with monarchy, and the United States had always been a republic. âLa beauté magnifique et lâélégance de Lady Libertyâ a été dévoilé en 2007 pour marquer le 159e anniversaire de lâémancipation de lâesclavage 1848. Although neither was actually in Paris during the Commune, both had been close by, and were able to witness the devastation it had wrought firsthand. In this context, the Statue of Liberty represented the kind of white female purity that served to justify the racial hierarchies of the time. 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